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Hard Drive problems

Discussion in 'Desktop' started by the_matrix_has_you, Feb 24, 2006.

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  1. hey guy's , need help with this . i installed a new HD on a friends pc and for some reason it doesnt recognize it , and when i boot up it sais " PRIMARY MASTER HARD DRIVE DISK ERROR " thanks again ..
  2. Krell

    Krell worthless dirtball Expert

    Learn how to set the jumpers, and what the Primary and Secondary, and the Master \ Slave is.

    Plenty to learn by google, now go learn and stop doig things without even basic research.

  3. look Krell , I Did It Correclt And Did Do A Search On It , And If Your Going To Be A Smart Ass I Wonder Why Some Users Think Twice About Posting Or Responding To Threads .
  4. Krell

    Krell worthless dirtball Expert

    forget you
  5. Mels_Smileys45

    Mels_Smileys45 JabberZombie Established Member

    YOU still dont have to be so damn condescending when someone asks for help. If you don't give a $hit, let someone else handle it. What the hell is the matter with you? Your response is way overboard and out of line.

    ******Edit: Hmmmm, The huge string of flames was edited out. Stick with your words if youre going to post such crap. That was fucked up but what you said can still be seen, but of course you know that, you were once a mod after all. Why do you go off on people like that sometimes?
  6. muffenme

    muffenme Registered Moonatic

    If you done everything right that include making sure that master/slave is set up right and that the cable plug in right and its the right ide cable, some older hard drive had problem with the newer cable, then you might want to repack that hard drive and return it, assume its new and you keep profe that you bought it. It could be a defective drive.
  7. CrashPeer44

    CrashPeer44 Its Time 4 Click-n-Hide!!

    Hey Hey Hey Lighten Up, All Of You.

    I Know what The Prob IS

    Look @ My Blog, That Will Give It A Fix!
  8. shawners

    shawners Hurt no more my son.

    I think sp2 needs to be installed on xp for drives over a 132 gigs or more. Whats the size and what brand are you using?
  9. 60 gb , and again thanks .
  10. shawners

    shawners Hurt no more my son.

  11. dawhits1

    dawhits1 Member

    if you had the os on the old hardrive that you replaced, and not the slave drive then you will have to run the boot disk. Also some hardrives come with a boot disk which wen u boot the computer to it configures the hardrive correctly for the computer. If you have a way I would suggest just backing up the old harddrive on disks, then reinstalling the os with the new hard drives setup. Also like shawners said, the mobo might not be compatible, check for driver updates/bios updates from the manufacturers website.
  12. nightshadow

    nightshadow Nerd, but still human.

    Let's see if we can do this properly.
    - Common reasons for this error are incorrect/damaged cables, incorrect jumpers, and malfunctioning drives. For all testing unplug all other devices on that branch until you get the drive to post properly and try a few different cables if avaiable.
    - Check the UDMA speed of the drive and what the board or expasion card support.
    - If the drive is DMA100 or DMA133 it should have an 80 conducter cable plugged in and the drives should be plugged in the order marked on the cable. Others should have a 40 conducter cable.
    - Jumpers, I know you probably already checked them, but it doesn't hurt to check again. Some models of hard drives have very odd pinouts, make sure they match the diagram exactly.
    - If you have no other devices plugged in and the jumpers and cable are correct, check your bios settings, sometimes udma bios settings can cause problems.
    - If you still have problems make sure to post the motherboard make and model along with the hard drive make and model, with out giving this information it is very difficult to provide any help other then general stuff. Lack of information can be very frustrating for people on both ends when trying to provide help others. - Almost forgot post the jumper settings also.
    - To make this clear to everyone this is a error at the bios screen. If bios does not register the drive properly, running dos based tools and such will not help as it won't be there either.
    - Hopefully this helps, if not post the info and any questions you have and I'll take you through more.
  13. kokanezub

    kokanezub Secretary General Established Member

    its probibly just the wires r in wrong slave/master make sure the hd u put in is set in the primary wires and not as a secondary hd
  14. Krell

    Krell worthless dirtball Expert

    Why do you people insist on telling him the same things I told him


    Therefore the problem HAS to be a malfunction in the hardware, and youre researching for him is fruitless efforts.

    Any further insinuations that he should probably NOT use those jumper settings will only incite him to type in BOLD

    Suggesting that they RTFM or set the BIOS to Auto Detect is INSULTING!! Now you assholes leave him alone and let him figure it out by himself, before Mels calls the ACLU and throws confetti at you!

  15. cheapprick

    cheapprick Member

    And I wasn't sure you had a sense of humor.
  16. Krell

    Krell worthless dirtball Expert

    Because most of you cant find your way home from the freaking mall, youre lazy, demanding, ungrateful and generally odd.

    Youre mother dresses you funny

    Who cares

  17. Mels_Smileys45

    Mels_Smileys45 JabberZombie Established Member

    Some would say the same about yourself, though I have no idea how your mother dresses you.

    It was just that you basically called him retarded in so many words. The pre-edited post was very degrading. I could understand if he made a habit out of causing trouble by posting too little info but he just needed a little guidance. Im sort of glad you edited your post but you did leave it up long enough for him to read. It was very insulting. Even if he doesn't post much he doesnt deserve to be talked to like that. I'm actually starting to worry about you man. There must be something else bothering you and youre taking it out on random people.
  18. Theinfamousone

    Theinfamousone Krell's Hitman Established Member

    I'm just wondering if he tried running the new hard drive by itself. If it works you know it's just a cable select setting problem (theoretically). I have an 80 gig that I've had running for about 5 years straight and occasionally it gives me an error like that, but I guess I've gotten my use out of it, so I'll just stick with it until it goes completely kaput. I've also got a brand new 300 gig hard drive that refuses to run as anything but slave unless it's the only hard drive, I've gone over every setting and it just wont work when it's set to primary, slave it works fine, by itself it works fine, so so much for my theory of testing it by itself to see if there is a defect.
  19. nightshadow

    nightshadow Nerd, but still human.

    Like you blend! :icon_geek
    Sometimes we repeat things because we like to hear ourselves and sometimes its because repetition works. Either way hopefully the problem is solved. Regardless no intellegence insults were ever intended or needed.

    For Theinfamousone,
    By refuses to run do you mean that it will not post to bios?
    It sounds like a possible cableing issue make sure it's an 80 conductor cable and plugged into the right plugins on the cable. Alot of people are unaware that plugin position on the cable does matter to many of todays drives. This is aided by the fact that many 80 conductor cables are only color codes and not marked.
    I'm certainly not trying to insult you in any way if already knew this, i'ts just easily overlooked is all, especially by people who are used to the older 40 conductor cables and devices.
    Any way, good luck and hopefully you keep everything backed up on that 80 giger.
  20. Krell

    Krell worthless dirtball Expert

    What I told Matrix is true, and I think he did not do his homework, so I said so.

    Muffinme told him

    shawners told him

    nightshadow told him

    kokanezub told him

    I want him to come back and post the REAL reason that he got that error, and what he did to correct it.

    It's not like this problem faded in to existance, it was immediate. He did one thing, the problem became, why does this need so much hand holding? He cant figure out what he JUST did before pushing the power button and getting the error?

    This is from the first 3 links of a google search:


    Ultra DMA (80-Conductor) IDE/ATA Cables
    There are a lot of issues and problems associated with the original 40-conductor IDE cable, due to its very old and not very robust design. Unterminated flat ribbon cables have never been all that great in terms of signal quality and dealing with reflections from the end of the cable. The warts of the old design were tolerable while signaling speeds on the IDE/ATA interface were relatively low, but as the speed of the interface continued to increase, the limitations of the cable were finally too great to be ignored.

    In the ATA/ATAPI-4 standard that introduced the Ultra DMA transfer mode set, a new cable was introduced to replace the old standby: the 80-conductor IDE/ATA cable. The name is important: the new cable has 80 conductors (wires)--it does not have 80 pins on each connector, though, just 40. This means that the new cable is pin-compatible with the old drive. No change has been made to the IDE/ATA connectors, aside from the color-coding issue (see below).

    The obvious question, of course, is this: what's the point of adding 40 extra wires to a cable if they aren't connected to anything? :^) Well for starters, the 40 wires are connected to something, just not their own pins on the interface connectors. The extra 40 wires don't carry new information, they are just used to separate the "real" 40 signal wires, to reduce interference and other signaling problems associated with higher-speed transfers. So the 40 extra conductors are connected to ground, interspersed between the original 40 conductors of the old cable. Any stray signals that would "cross-talk" between adjacent wires on the 40-conductor cable are "absorbed" by these extra ground wires, improving signal integrity. The extra ground wires can be either all of the even-numbered wires, or all of the odd-numbered wires in the cable.

    There are a number of other attributes and characteristics of the 80-conductor cable, which I'm going to list in bullet form for easier absorption:
    • Requirement: The 80-conductor cable was first defined with the original Ultra DMA modes 0, 1 and 2, covering transfer speeds up to 33.3 MB/s. The cable is considered "optional" for those modes. However, for any Ultra DMA modes above mode 2, the 80-conductor cable is mandatory.
    • Detection: Since the cable is mandatory for high-speed modes, the system has to have some way of knowing it is installed. This is done by having the /PDIAG:/CBLID signal, carried on pin #34 of the interface, grounded in the connector that attaches to the motherboard. Since the older 40-conductor cable would not have this pin grounded, by looking for the grounding on this pin at startup the host can determine if the 80-conductor cable is installed.
    • Cable Select Support and Drive Assignment: All 80-conductor cables that meet the ATA specifications support the cable select feature automatically. This is accomplished by special connection of the CSEL signal on pin #28. The cable can still be used with drives that have been manually configured as master or slave, of course. See the discussion of cable select for more.
    • Connector Assignments and Color Coding: For the first time, the 80-conductor cable defines specific roles for each of the connectors on the cable; the older cable did not. Color coding of the connectors is used to make it easier to determine which connector goes with each device:
      • Blue: The blue connector attaches to the host (motherboard or controller).
      • Gray: The gray connector is in the middle of the cable, and goes to any slave (device 1) drive if present on the channel.
      • Black: The black connector is at the opposite end from the host connector and goes to the master drive (device 0), or a single drive if only one is used.
      There are a couple of reasons why this coding was done. The main one is the issue mentioned in the discussion of the 40-conductor cable: it is not a good idea to connect a single drive to the middle connector on a ribbon cable, because the "stub" of left-over, unconnected cable causes signaling problems. With Ultra DMA this "stub" connection is not just "not recommended", it is illegal: a single device must be at the end of the cable. The other reason is that since these cables support cable select inherently, the position of each drive on the cable matters if cable select is being used. With these two needs combined, it just made sense to design the cable so that drive positioning was explicitly clear.


    Configuration Using Cable Select
    An alternative to the standard master/slave jumpering system used in the vast majority of PCs is the use of the cable select system. As the name implies, with this system the cable--or more correctly, which connector on the cable a device is attached to--determines which device is master and which is slave. The goal of cable select is to eliminate having to set master and slave jumpers, allowing simpler configuration.

    To use cable select, both devices on the channel are set to the "cable select" (CS) setting, usually by a special jumper. Then, a special cable is used. This cable is very similar in most respects to the regular IDE/ATA cable, except for the CSEL signal. CSEL is carried on wire #28 of the standard IDE/ATA cable, and is grounded at the host's connector (the one that attaches to the motherboard or controller). On a cable select cable, one of the connectors (the "master connector") has pin #28 connected through to the cable, but the other (the "slave connector") has an open circuit on that pin (no connection). When both drives on the channel are set cable select, here's what happens:
    • Master: The device that is attached to the "master connector" sees the CSEL signal as grounded, because its connector has pin #28 attached to the cable, and the host's connector has that signal grounded. Seeing the "zero value" (grounded), the device sets itself to operate as master (device 0).
    • Slave: The drive that is attached to the "slave connector" does not see the CSEL signal as grounded, because its connector is not attached to the CSEL signal on the cable. Seeing this "no connection", the device configures itself as a slave (device 1).
    If you switch the devices between the two connectors, they swap configuration, the master becoming the slave and vice-versa. Not a very complicated arrangement, and a good idea, it would seem. In fact, if cable select had actually caught on, it would have been great. The problem is that it has never been widely used, and this lack of universality has made cable select unattractive, which is a bit of a chicken and egg situation. Since cable select was never accepted in the industry, most drives come, by default, with the drive jumpered as a master or single drive. This means that to enable cable select, you have to change a jumper anyway, which obviously negates some of the advantage.

    But the biggest reason why cable select never caught on was the cable itself. From the very beginning, all 40-conductor IDE/ATA cables should have been made so that they would work with cable select. There's actually no need to have different cable types, because if you set a drive to "master" or "slave" explicitly, it just ignores the CSEL setting. So a cable select cable can be used either way: regular jumpering or cable select.

    Unfortunately, regular 40-conductor IDE/ATA cables don't support cable select. (Why this came about I do not know, but I suspect that some bean counter determined they could save five cents on each PC by doing this.) So to use cable select you need a special cable, and these are of course non-standard, making them a special purchase. Also, many people don't understand cable select, nor do they realize it needs a special cable. If you set both drives to "CS" and then use them on a regular (non-cable-select) IDE cable, both drives will configure themselves as "master", causing a configuration conflict.
    Making matters worse, the 40-conductor IDE/ATA cable select cables have the "master connector" as the middle device and the "slave connector" as the device at the end of the cable, farthest from the host. For signaling reasons, it's best to put a single drive at the end of a cable, not put it in the middle leaving a "stub" of wire hanging off the end of the channel.

    But if you do this, that single drive sets itself as a slave with no master, a technically illegal configuration. Worse, suppose you do this, and your hard disk sets itself as a slave, and the system boots from it without problem, as most would. Then, you decide to add a new hard disk. You set it to cable select and attach it to the middle connector. The new drive then becomes the master, and thus moves ahead of the old drive in precedence! The system will try to boot from it instead of your old drive (which some people might want, but many do not.)

    To get around this problem, a second type of 40-wire cable select cable was created, the so-called "Y-shaped" cable. On this one, the connector to the system is in the middle, and the slave and master connectors are on the two opposite ends of the cable. This certainly makes things less confusing, but has its own difficulties. For starters, IDE/ATA cables are very limited in length, which means this "Y-shaped" cable was hard to use in large tower systems. All your drives had to be mounted very close to the motherboard or controller card so the cable would reach. And again, the cable was a special item.

    As you can see, the traditional way of doing cable select was a total mess, which was why it was never widely adopted. The key reason for this mess was--once again--lack of standardization. I rather expected cable select to eventually wither away. However, when the 80-conductor Ultra DMA cable was introduced, the cable select feature was much improved, changing the potential of this feature. The two key changes were:
    • Drive Position: Unlike the old cables, with the 80-conductor cable, the master connector is at the end of the cable, and the slave is in the middle. As I explained above, this is a much more sensible arrangement, since a single drive placed at the end of the cable will be a master, and a second drive added in the middle a slave.
    • Universality: All 80-conductor IDE/ATA cables support cable select (or at least, all of the ones that are built to meet the ATA standards). This means there's no confusion over what cables support the feature, and no need for strange "Y-cables" and other non-standard solutions.
    These two changes mean a world of difference for the future of cable select. Since these cables will eventually completely replace all of the 40-conductor cables, all systems will be capable of running cable select without any special hardware being needed. As I mentioned before, you can still explicitly set drives to master or slave if you want to, and the CSEL signal will be ignored by the drives. So the bottom line is that these cables work either way, cable select or not. What will finally make cable select catch on? If drive manufacturers and systems integrators widely agree to use it, and the manufacturers start shipping drives with the "CS" jumpers on by default. We'll have to see if this happens.

    [​IMG]Warning: 80-conductor IDE/ATA cables are often said to be compatible with 40-conductor cables. That's true of normal 40-conductor cables with drives jumpered as master and slave, but not cable select cables. If you swap a regular (non-"Y-shaped") 40-conductor cable select cable with an 80-conductor IDE cable, the master and slave drives will swap logical positions. If you don't that to happen, you'll need to change the order that the devices connect to the cable.


    Connecting IDE Hard Drives
    You Would Think It Was Simple, But...
    [SIZE=-1]When connecting IDE devices in your computer, there are a few rules you need to know about.[/SIZE]
    [SIZE=-1]First, Master and Slave devices are different for the 80-wire cables and the 40-wire cables.[/SIZE]
    [SIZE=-1]Second, if you don't know for sure, RTDM... (read the damn manual).[/SIZE]
    [SIZE=-1]Inside your computer, you generally have two (2) IDE hard drive controller connections. They look this this 99% of the time:[/SIZE]

    [SIZE=-1][ The smaller one on the very top is a floppy drive controller connection ][/SIZE]
    [SIZE=-1]There is a Primary & Secondary connection located here. The Primary connection ALWAYS gets the 80-wire cable. Most of the time, but not always, you connect the 40-wire cable on the other Secondary connection. This is normally where you connect your lesser used devices like CDROMs, CDROM Burners and Tape Drives. You can connect other hard drives here with your CDROM or slower device, but there are issues that I'll go into later.[/SIZE]

    [SIZE=-1]Pictured here are the two cables, the 80-wire and the older 40-wire ATA IDE cables. As you can see, the one on the left, the newer 80-wire cable has very small wires running from connector to connector, conversely, the 40-wire cable has larger wires. There is a reason for this. The newer standard requires the addition and separation of the wires for better signals to achieve the faster speeds.[/SIZE]

    [SIZE=-1]The older Master & Slave relationship[/SIZE]
    [SIZE=-1]For the longest time, hard drives have always had a setting for a Master or Primary setting and Slave. The Master was always the boot drive, the drive that contained the operating system. The other drive or Slave drive was for data storage. In rare cases, using this configuration you could boot from a Slave device but I'm not gonna get into that here and now. The way technicians have always done it in the past with the 40-wire cable was Master in the Middle connection and Slave on the end. It really didn't matter much until the hard drive makers started making drives with the Cable Select option.[/SIZE]

    Connecting Your Hard Drives

    [SIZE=-1]40 Wire Cables[/SIZE][SIZE=-1]
    On the slower older 40-wire ATA cables, the Master device, usually a CD-ROM or CD-ROM recorder/burner still goes on the END, but you need to set the jumpers as Slave. Did you ever buy a new CDROM or CDROM burner, open up the package and see that the jumper was already on the Slave position? It's that way for a reason. This is true even if you don't have a hard drive in the Master position. The Master for 40-wire cables goes on the the Middle connector. Only older computers (the AT type) have a problem here, and again, you should read the manual that came with the motherboard or contact the maker of the system. You could try it as a Master and it may work but that's not the way it should be. If you want to use the cable select with the older drive on a 40-wire cable, you'll have to consult the maker of the drive for the instructions. My sources tell me that there was a loose standard to put the Master drive on the end of the 40-wire cable and the Slave in the middle but that was a very loose standard. Makers I spoke to (IBM, Maxtor, etc.) informed me that the user should set the drive using the Master and Slave jumpers on the hard drive, placing the Master in the middle and the Slave on the end. Dats Dat.[/SIZE]

    [SIZE=-1]80-wire Cables[/SIZE][SIZE=-1]
    On the ATA66/100/133 standard 80-wire cable, the Master hard drive or your boot hard drive goes on the END of the cable. This is true whether or not you use the Master/Slave style or the Cable Select style.[/SIZE]

    Frequently Asked Questions: [SIZE=-1]

    Can I connect a older ATA33 drive with my newer ATA66/100/133 drive?
    Yes. But, you'll suffer a dramatic speed hit. Because of the slower drives controller, the PC will accommodate both drives by slowing down the pair to the older drives speed. Put your older drive on the Secondary channel with your CDROM as the Master.[/SIZE]

    [SIZE=-1] What position should I connect my CDROM Burner if I want to put it on the 40-wire cable?
    It should be the Master, and the hard drive (if you have one) Slave.[/SIZE]

    [SIZE=-1] Can I put my brand new CDROM Burner on the Slave position on my 80-wire cable?
    I wouldn't. That would slow down the hard drive.[/SIZE]

    [SIZE=-1] Why does my motherboard detect my ATA100 hard drive as a ATA33 or DMA mode 2?
    Some hard drives need to have a special driver that was supplied by the manufacturer to turn-on the ATA66, 100 or 133 feature.[/SIZE]

    [SIZE=-1] [/SIZE]Notes: [SIZE=-1]

    The standard 40-wire ATA ribbon cable and the 80-wire cable give different drive behavior when using Cable Select. If using the standard 40-wire cable, the Master goes in the middle connector and the Slave goes in the end connector. If using the 80-wire cable, attach the blue end connector to the system board or host controller, the gray middle connector to the Slave, and the black end connector to the Master.[/SIZE]

    [SIZE=-1]All newer IDE/EIDE hard drives can be jumpered as Cable Select (CS or CSEL). This is an alternate way to indicate which drive is master and which drive is slave (instead of jumpering one drive as master and one drive as slave). Cable Select jumpering requires a special IDE cable with wire 28 not connected to one of the drive connectors, which would configure the drive attached to that connector as the slave drive.[/SIZE]

    [SIZE=-1]Cable Select jumpering is not widely used now, but may become more common as things move more towards Plug and Play, as this is part of the ATA PnP standard and Microsoft's PC97 standard. The idea is that drives can be installed easily without having to change jumpers on two drives anytime a drive is installed or removed. Cable Select is defined in the ATA-2 and ATA-3 specifications.[/SIZE]

    [SIZE=-1]In order to use Cable Select jumpering, several conditions must be met. Both drives on a channel must support CSEL, both drives must be jumpered as CSEL, a CSEL cable must be used, and the host interface connector must support CSEL. For the host interface to support Cable Select, wire 28 must be grounded.[/SIZE]

    [SIZE=-1]Although the Cable Select specification may simplify things in the future, there will probably be lots of confusion, especially on legacy systems, as this starts to be introduced. One problem will be in selecting the correct cable. Supposedly, the cables used for Cable Select will be clearly marked, with each connector labeled as Device 0 (or Master) or Device 1 (or Slave). If not clearly marked, it may not be easy to identify a CSEL cable visually. wire 28 can be checked for continuity.[/SIZE]

    [SIZE=-1]A Cable Select cable can be constructed in various ways. Pin 28 may be non connected to the connector at the end of the cable or to the connector in the middle of the cable. Another design would have the host interface connector in the middle and the two drives would plug into each end of the cable, with the connector at one of the ends not connected to pin 28.[/SIZE]
    [SIZE=-1]If both drives are set for CSEL and the host interface supports CSEL, but a regular cable is used, both drives will be seen as master.[/SIZE]

    [SIZE=-1]A Cable Select cable can be used with master/slave drive jumpering.[/SIZE]
    [SIZE=-1]Another problem will be with host interfaces on legacy motherboards and controller cards. If pin 28 is not grounded on the host interface, drives connected to either connector on the CSEL cable will be seen as slave. It will be common to find that pin 28 is open or high on many older IDE interfaces. This can be checked with a voltmeter.[/SIZE]

    [SIZE=-1]Installing the 80-Conductor IDE Cable[/SIZE][SIZE=-1]
    The 40-pin 80-conductor cable is orientation specific. The cable connectors are color-coded: blue for the host connector, black and gray for the primary and secondary disk drives. The blue connector should be installed into the Primary IDE connector.[/SIZE]

    [SIZE=-1]All Ultra ATA/66 devices should be attached to a single channel and devices that do not support Ultra ATA/66 should be connected to a separate channel. In single drive configurations, connect the primary drive to the end connector on the 40-pin 80-conductor cable.[/SIZE]

    From the horses mouth
    [SIZE=-1]Here are some quotes from leading websites about connecting IDE devices:[/SIZE]

    [SIZE=-1]Intel - [/SIZE][SIZE=-1]Installing the 80-Conductor IDE Cable[/SIZE]
    The 40-pin 80-conductor cable is orientation specific. The cable connectors are color-coded: blue for the host connector, black and gray for the primary and secondary disk drives. The blue connector should be installed into the Primary IDE connector.[/SIZE]

    [SIZE=-1]All Ultra ATA/66 devices should be attached to a single channel and devices that do not support Ultra ATA/66 should be connected to a separate channel. In single drive configurations, connect the primary drive to the end connector on the 40-pin 80-conductor cable.
    [SIZE=-2] http://support.intel.com/support/motherboards/desktop/vc820/assembly.htm#ide[/SIZE]

    [SIZE=-1]HowStuffWorks - [/SIZE][SIZE=-1]How IDE Controllers Works[/SIZE][SIZE=-1]
    IDE devices use a ribbon cable to connect to each other. Ribbon cables have all of the wires laid flat next to each other instead of bunched or wrapped together in a bundle. IDE ribbon cables have either 40 or 80 wires. There is a connector at each end of the cable and another one about two-thirds of the distance from the motherboard connector. This cable cannot exceed 18 inches in total length (12 inches from first to second connector, and six inches from second to third) to maintain signal integrity.[/SIZE]

    [SIZE=-1]The three connectors are typically different colors and attach to specific items:[/SIZE]
    [SIZE=-1]The blue connector attaches to the motherboard.[/SIZE]
    [SIZE=-1]The black connector attaches to the primary, or master, drive.[/SIZE]
    [SIZE=-1]The gray connector attaches to the secondary, or slave, drive.[/SIZE]

    [SIZE=-1]Along one side of the cable is a stripe. This stripe tells you that the wire on that side is attached to Pin 1 of each connector. Wire 20 is not connected to anything. In fact, there is no pin at that position. This position is used to ensure that the cable is attached to the drive in the correct position. Another way that manufacturers use to make sure that the cable is not reversed is by using a cable key. The cable key is a small plastic square on top of the connector on the ribbon cable that fits into a notch on the connector of the device. This allows the cable to attach in only one position

    [SIZE=-1]Computer Architecture at the institution of Computer Science at UmeƄ University in northern Sweden - [/SIZE][SIZE=-1]Cabling for ATA[/SIZE]
    It's easy to describe the different cable types used by the ATA interface today because there really is only one standard. And that is a 40/80 PIN flat cable with 3 IDC connectors. You can attach up to two units on the cable, one master and one slave. The 80 pin cable is for use with Ultra DMA devices but the 40 pin cable can be used with newer Ultra DMA devices but no faster modes than Ultra DMA/33 are available in that case.[/SIZE]

    [SIZE=-1]In latter years a new cable have emerged and that is a 44 pin flat cable which is mostly used for 2.5" internal hard drives. The 4 extra pins are used for supplying power to the drive. As far as we know there does not exist any external IDE cables.[/SIZE]
    [SIZE=-1]Future for ATA[/SIZE][SIZE=-1]
    In order for the ATA interface to cope with the increased data clock rate in the future, a proper terminator has to be applied to prevent "ringing" in the cable. This is not easily solved while achieving backward compatibility and will require cooperation between the major hardware manufacturers to make it work. Perhaps a solution is around the corner as there is a draft for a FireWire ATA interface. [/SIZE]


    [SIZE=-1]Maxtor/Quantum Serial ATA White Paper
    [SIZE=-2] http://www.maxtor.com/quantum/src/whitepapers/wp_serialata.htm[/SIZE]

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